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Number of Vehicles Excessive

With the functioning of the non-toll flyovers, road users have two options.

By Selamat Saragih

Whatever the policy adopted by Provincial Government of Jakarta Special Capital Territory (DKI Jakarta), as long as the import gates for cars and motorcycles are still left widely open by the central government, congestion will continue to haunt the Capital City.

That view is reflected in the rising number of vehicles. Every day, at least 2,400 vehicle registration documents (STNK) are issued in Jabodetabek [Greater Jakarta area comprising Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi]. They comprise 400 private cars and 2,000 motorcycles. If a car has an average length of three metres, the rise in the number of private cars occupies 1,200m, or 1.2km, of road per day. The streets have become narrower because motorcycles also significantly contribute to traffic jams.

If the length of a motorcycle is 1.5m, and 2,000 units are lined up, they will take up some 3,000m-long space, or three km, per day. In fact, if three motorcycles are positioned parallel so as to match the width of a car, the calculation is 3,000m divided by three, thus we have the figure of one km.

That means, every day the increase in vehicle numbers in Jabodetabek takes up a 4km-long road section. In a month, some 120km-long road section is taken, and in a year 1,440km. "No wonder, every turn of the year the streets have become increasingly jammed," said Prabowo, a resident of Jalan Kali Pasir, Central Jakarta, yesterday.

Congestion problem has become so heavy and severe because the length of roads in Jakarta is only 7,650km, with a total area of ​​no more than 40.1km2 (6.2 percent of the total area of ​​DKI). Meanwhile, Ministry of Transportation and Ministry of Finance, which have the authority to regulate the importation of vehicles, have yet to show any intention to set limitations.

Due to the limited space, growth in the length of roads in Jakarta has averaged only 0.01 percent per year. "Road ratio in Jakarta has only reached 6.28 percent," said Head of Department of Public Works, Ery Basworo, yesterday. This figure is far below the road ratio in Tokyo, which reaches 20 percent, or London, which is at 25 percent.

The large number of vehicles has made Jakarta to be packed with 20.7 million trips per day, with 98.5 percent of these using private vehicles. An examination of data from Bappenas Study on Integrated Transportation Master Plan for Jabodetabek (Sitramp) show that traffic congestion causes economic wastage and losses of up to Rp 8.3 trillion per year. Bappenas has also reminded that the estimated economic losses caused by congestion could reach Rp 28.1 trillion, whereas losses from travel time [may] reach Rp 36.9 trillion.

Reflecting on these figures, improvements as well as addition of road infrastructure as one of the ways to unravel traffic congestion in Jakarta constitute something that cannot be delayed. DKI Jakarta Provincial Government through DKI Department of Public Works since November 2010 has been constructing two non-toll flyovers of Antasari - Blok M and Kampung Melayu - Tanah Abang routes. Governor Fauzi Bowo has targeted these non-toll roads to begin operations at the latest by the end of 2012.

At present, construction of the non-toll Antasari - Blok M flyover has entered the final work stages. It is likely that the 5km-long overpass, which stretches from south to north, will already become operational this coming August.

"With the functioning of this elevated road, road users will thus have two options, namely through the road underneath the overpass, or the overpass itself, so that drivers can directly travel across from Antasari to Blok M, and vice versa," said Fauzi Bowo.

This former head of DKI Jakarta Tourism Department is optimistic that the operation of the non-toll, Kampung Melayu - Tanah Abang overpass will be able to parse 40 percent of the congestion in the area. The elevated road’s operation will add four lanes to the existing six lanes, so that the total capacity will be 10 lanes.

Bridge narrowness has also often hindered the pace of traffic. Next month, DKI Jakarta Provincial Government plans to widen Cengkareng Drain Bridge in West Jakarta and Jalan Boulevard Timur Bridge in North Jakarta.

The width of Cengkareng Drain Bridge will be increased by 8m to become 30m. The Boulevard Timur Bridge will be widened by 4m to 14m. The widening of these two bridge road segments will spend a budget of Rp11 billion, with Rp 6 billion for Cengkareng Drain and Rp 5 billion for the widening of Jalan Boulevard Timur bridge segment. The target is that the widening of these two bridges will be finished and they can function by the end of this year.

Still in the framework to increase road capacity, DKI Jakarta Provincial Government has planned to build a number of short-cut roads. In early 2013, two short-cut bridges will be built in North Jakarta. The short-cut road between Jalan Yos Sudarso and Jalan RE Martadinata will be 5km long, while the one between Jalan Danau Sunter Selatan and Jalan Yos Sudarso will extend for 400m. The width of the two roads will be the same, namely eight metres. (* / J-1) 

Three Strategies to Overcome Congestion
Introduction: Unravelling Jakarta’s congestion is the main task of the Head of DKI Jakarta Transportation Department, Udar Pristono. Whatever he has been doing to make the Capital City a comfortable place to have a trip in was told to Selamat Saragih and Vera Erwaty Ismainy of Media Indonesia.

What are being done to overcome traffic bottlenecks?
DKI Jakarta Provincial Government has already made plans and set priorities in dealing with congestion that has been getting worse from day to day. We pour these in Macro Transportation Pattern (PTM), which has been set out in Regulation of Governor of DKI Jakarta Province No. 103/ 2007. PTM covers three main strategies in order to realise better transportation.

What are the three strategies?
Development of mass public transport that comprises bus rapid transit (BRT), light rapid transit (LRT), and mass rapid transit (MRT). Then, there are vehicle traffic restrictions, such as the 3 in 1 policy, electronic road pricing, parking restrictions, and the provision of park and ride facilities. Furthermore, there is increased network capacity, such as the development of area traffic control system, widening of roads and bridges, construction of flyovers, construction of non-level intersections, development of road networks, and provision of pedestrian facilities.

Which are the strategies that have been implemented?
Development of Trans-Jakarta mass public transport has achieved 11 corridors from the 15 corridors planned. We have also restructured public transport (large buses) whose service routes intersect with the busway, arranged public transport by conducting tenders for public transport operatorship, and operated busway feeder transport, which by now has involved three routes. 

At present, the operation of border transport integrated with Trans-Jakarta from Bekasi and Tangerang is underway. 

In terms of restrictions, what has been done?
We restrict private vehicles by imposing the 3 in 1 policy, limiting the operating time of freight vehicles on inner-city toll roads, and enforcing prohibition of on-street parking, such as in Jalan Gajah Mada - Hayam Wuruk and Jalan Taman Suropati.

How about traffic control?
Yes, we have developed area traffic control system by optimising intersections through resetting the cycle time of traffic lights, as well as simplifying the phase. We have also undertaken the management and engineering of traffic by improving the road geometrics, intersections, installation of signs and road markings, applying one-way systems and others, minimising barriers in streets by providing pedestrian crossing bridge facilities, zebra crossing, pelican crossing, pedestrian pathways, as well as disciplining public transport vehicles, parking lots, and sterilisation of busway lanes.

What policies will be applied in the near future?
We are preparing the implementation of electronic road pricing as a replacement for the 3 in 1 policy. In addition, we are improving the services of TransJakarta with sterilisation and addition of the bus fleet, development of corridor XII, and operation of Pulo Gebang Sentra Timur integrated bus terminal. (J-1)

Relocate Ministerial Offices
Jakarta’s burden has been too heavy. The efforts of DKI Jakarta Provincial Government are already maximal, but the high addition of vehicle numbers continues to shackle the Capital City in congestion. Environmental and urban expert of University Indonesia (UI), Tarsoen Waryono, recommends the relocation of government administrative centre in a radius of 200km from the Capital City.

For example, Ministry of Forestry [will be positioned] in Cianjur, Ministry of Public Works in Sukabumi, Ministry of Agriculture in Cikampek, and Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources in Purwakarta. "Only the ministers have offices in Jakarta, in one building, close to People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR)/ House of Representatives (DPR) and the State Palace," said the chairman of UI’s Postgraduate Programme, yesterday.

To facilitate inter-ministerial transportation, the central government should build roads, both toll roads and the monorail. In this way, the central government gives thought about the comfort of Jakarta until 100 years into the future.

Tarsoen estimated that the total number of commuters and residents of DKI Jakarta who conduct activities in the Capital City is more than 25 million people per day.

If just 20 percent of them bring their vehicles, there are surprising data that at least five million automobiles and motorcycles moving about throughout the day. Congestion is inevitable.

Police observation using CCTV shows that Jakarta is full of vehicles from 06:00 hours to 09:00 hours WIB [Western Indonesia Time], and even the line of cars from the direction of Cikampek toward Jakarta can reach 12km in length. The density from the direction of Bogor to Jakarta occurs at Km 7 to Km 9. Similarly, from Tangerang to Jakarta, the average speed is only 5km per hour.

For 12 hours (06:00 - 18:00 hours) in the Capital City, according to Tarsoen, smooth traffic only takes place from 11:00 hours until 13:00 hours. "Every work day is always like that, with the exception of public holidays, when it is relatively comfortable," he said.

According to him, the presence of vehicles from various surrounding cities to the Capital City is also going to threaten public health. Air pollution caused by vehicle exhaust, involving either CO2, lead and nitrogen, as well as several other elements, is harmful to health.

"Reduction in the number of vehicles will occur if the ministerial buildings are relocated away from Jakarta. Subsequently, DKI Jakarta Provincial Government can take measures to balance the number of vehicles with open green spaces. That way, we will find the convenience of traffic and comfort of the environment,” said the winner of Kalpataru Award for Environment Counsellor category from President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in 2005. (KG/J-1) 

Traffic Congestion in Jakarta
Traffic congestion has become a day-to-day problem, especially in Jakarta. DKI Jakarta Provincial Government has continued to make efforts to address traffic congestion.

Data and Facts

  • The number of motor vehicles in Jakarta reached 7.98 million units of various types (data of 2011).
  • The total length of roads in Jakarta is 7,650km.
  • Road area is 40.1km2 (6.2 percent of the total area of ​​DKI Jakarta).
  • Growth of road length is only 0.01 percent per year.
  • Growth in the number of motor vehicles in Jakarta reaches an average of 256 four-wheeled motor vehicles and 1,200 motorcycles per day (not including the Bodetabek area)
Threat of Congestion
  • Losses due to congestion is at Rp 8.3 trillion (study of 2002).
  • In 2014, Jakarta is expected to be totally congested.
Causes of Congestion
  • Absence of any restrictions on vehicles.
  • The rising number of vehicles in Jakarta is not commensurate with the available road areas.
  • The lack of parking signs on some streets leads to vehicles being parked haphazardly on roadsides.
  • There is presence of street vendors (PKL).
Efforts already Made by Provincial Government
  • Increase the length of roads by building multi-level roads and inner-city toll roads.
  • Increase accessibility, such as development and improvement of Jalan Joglo Raya, Jl Kembangan Raya, short-cut road from Jalan Kepalagading toward Pulogadung Terminal.
  • Construction of a road parallel to East Flood Canal (KBT).
  • Pursue the completion JORR [Jakarta Outer Ring Road] W2.
  • Develop and improving mass transit, namely by adding 11 Trans-Jakarta bus corridors with the operational support of seven busway feeder routes.
  • Improve Trans-Jakarta bus service and increase electric train systems and carriages.
  • Build two non-toll overpasses, namely Kampung Melayu - Tanah Abang non-toll elevated road (JLNT) and Antasari - Blok M JLNT, which are planned for completion by the end of 2012.
  • Build MRT, which will begin in October 2012.
  • Implement high parking rates in three divided parking zones.
  • Plan for the widening of two bridge segments, namely Cengkareng Drain Bridge in West Jakarta and Jalan Boulevard Timur Bridge in North Jakarta.
Efforts currently Underway
  • Prepare Trans-Jakarta bus services with sterilisation and addition of articulated bus fleet.
  • Build 12 busway corridors and operate Pulo Gebang Sentra Timur integrated bus terminal.
Bridges already Built by DKI Provincial Government
  • Cakung Grand Bridge
  • Kali Blencong Bridge
  • North Pluit Bridge
  • Tanjung Duren Bridge
  • Muara Angke Bridge
  • Kalibata Bridge
Currently Constructed Non-Toll Elevated Roads
  • Antasari Non-Toll Overpass
  • Kampung Melayu - Casablanca Non-Toll Overpass
Flyovers already Built
  • Martadinata Flyover
  • Yos Sudarso Flyover (there are 2 lanes)
  • Bandengan Flyover (there are 2 lanes)
  • Tubagus Angke Flyover
  • Roxy Flyover
  • Latuharhary Flyover
Underpasses already Built
  • Angkasa Underpass
  • Kebayoran Lama Underpasses (three of them):
    1.  Simpang Jamblang
    2.  Simpang Kebayoran Lama
    3.  Simpang Bungur
Source: Provincial Government of DKI Jakarta / Graphics: ebet